Because of this, the Secretariat rarely met during the next two years. A Conference, officially referred to as an All-Union Conference, was convened between Congresses by the Central Committee to discuss party policy and to make personnel changes within the Central Committee. , The CPSU's demise began in March 1990, when state bodies eclipsed party elements in power by . Below is a timeline of notable events that shaped Communism’s arc in history. To do this, the first five-year plan was implemented in 1928.  In 1956, the school in Moscow was opened for students from socialist countries outside the Soviet Union.  An unintended consequence of these reforms was the increased anti-CPSU pressure; in March 1990, at a session of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, the party was forced to relinquish its political monopoly of power, in effect turning the Soviet Union into a liberal democracy. The office was formally titled First Secretary between 1952 and 1966.  Marxism–Leninism was used to justify CPSU rule and Soviet policy, but it was not used as a means to an end. The threat of fascist sabotage and imminent attack greatly exacerbating the already existing tensions within the Soviet Union and the Communist Party.  For instance, the ideology explained that the CPSU's policies, even if they were unpopular, were correct because the party was enlightened.  The greater the power held by the sitting CPSU General Secretary, the higher the chance that the Politburo membership would be approved. • July 5, 1950: Leading United Nations forces, the first U.S. troops engage in the Korean War, after communist North Korea invaded South Korea with the intent of creating a unified communist state.  By now, the party leaders believed that because of Russia's backward state, universal mass participation and true democracy could only take form in the last stage. , The Brezhnev era began with a rejection of Khrushchevism in virtually every arena except one: continued opposition to Stalinist methods of terror and political violence.  75–80 percent of raikom members were full members, while the remaining 20–25 were non-voting, candidate members.  It was written in response to the theoretical crisis within Marxist thought, which occurred due to capitalism's recovery in the 19th century.  Stalin explained the reasoning behind it at the 16th Congress held in 1930;, We stand for the strengthening of the dictatorship of the proletariat, which represents the mightiest and most powerful authority of all forms of State that have ever existed. , In Marxist philosophy, Leninism is the body of political theory for the democratic organization of a revolutionary vanguard party and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat as a political prelude to the establishment of the socialist mode of production developed by Lenin. During the collectivization campaign and industrialization campaigns of the first five-year plan from 1929 to 1933, party membership grew rapidly to approximately 3.5 million members. In 1933, after years of unsuccessful workers' revolutions (including a short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic) and spiraling economic calamity, Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany, violently suppressing the revolutionary organizers and posing a direct threat to the Soviet Union that ideologically supported them.  Despite this, until the end of his life, Lenin warned of the danger that the party could be taken over by bureaucrats, by a small clique, or by an individual. When the Congress was not in session, the Central Committee was the highest body.  Marxism–Leninism stressed the importance of the worldwide conflict between capitalism and socialism; the Soviet press wrote about progressive and reactionary forces while claiming that socialism was on the verge of victory and that the "correlations of forces" were in the Soviet Union's favor.  In 1955, Khrushchev achieved the demotion of Malenkov and secured his own position as Soviet leader. Yes, it is contradictory.  The Central Committee elected the Politburo in the aftermath of a party Congress.  This Vienna-based newspaper published its last issue in 1912 and was succeeded the same year by a new newspaper dominated by the Bolsheviks, also called Pravda, which was headquartered in St.  Lenin intended that the devotion to policy required by centralism would protect the parties from such revisionist ills and bourgeois defamation of socialism. This principle, conceived by Lenin, entails democratic and open discussion of policy issues within the party, followed by the requirement of total unity in upholding the agreed policies. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription.  According to Lenin, imperialism was a specific stage of development of capitalism; a stage he referred to as state monopoly capitalism.  It was amended at the 9th Congress.  He, therefore, concluded that the form of government has nothing to do with the nature of the dictatorship of the proletariat.  Stalin held the view common among most Bolsheviks at the time; there was a possibility of real success for socialism in the Soviet Union despite the country's backwardness and international isolation.