When considering this position and that represented by McDermott et al., as well as Glutting et al. This approach to the study of nature was strongly rejected by the early modern philosophers such as Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and David Hume, all of whom preferred "understanding" (in place of "intellectus" or "intelligence") in their English philosophical works. But as Zangwill (1964) pointed out, the real work on the exploration and development of this concept began with the development of intelligence tests for the purpose of addressing socioeducational problems. To obtain the desired results, the Commission proposed to the other European institutions and national governments to connect the concept of “intelligence” to a sustainable and integrated model of development applicable to a city, island, territory, or industrial district, based on the coherence and integration of six fundamental pillars: (a) technology and instruments for energy efficiency and integration of renewable sources; (b) dissemination of technology and connectivity platforms to create the new digital service systems; (c) new digital services to improve the quality of life and work of citizens and companies; (d) modernization of urban infrastructures and urban redesign; (e) education and training of citizens, businesses, and the public sector in digital skills; (f) a model of economic and financial sustainability for investments. This post can guide you the best to comprehend every Reading answer without much difficulty. Kerry Hamsher, in Acquired Aphasia (Third Edition), 1998. Many psychologists have raised this same question, because most of the various characteristics related to emotional intelligence are generally viewed as socially desirable personality traits. The definition that we will use as a basis to define the concept of smart city is the one included in the Spanish National Smart Cities Plan (PNR, 2014), which is within the objectives pursued in the 20/20 strategy. In this respect, coping and dimensions of personal control are also important for daily life adjustment and performance on certain cognitive tasks. There have been two rather different approaches to the study and measurement of emotional intelligence. 2006. Sir Cyril Burt (1955) ascribed the origin of the concept of intelligence to Plato and Aristotle and credits Cicero with the coinage of the term. Evelyn H. Kroesbergen, ... Sietske Van Viersen, in Cognition, Intelligence, and Achievement, 2015. Some challenges in this area are defining intelligence so that it has the same meaning across species (e.g. Lytras and Visvizi, 2018). (1992), do suggest that using the WISC-III in isolation has limitations, but using the ipsative approach in conjunction with other relevant information such as achievement test results and pertinent background information may be beneficial. The individual's unique repertoire of behaviors, including cognitive and emotional styles, represents another dimension to consider in an assessment. Not only do people show different patterns of performance in different contexts, but different levels of performance as well. Ekelund, Bjørn Z. The actual strength in the associations between test scores and self-evaluations were, however, quite weak. It is not merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts. Because psychology has developed methods to determine whether a particular test is a measure of what we intend to call intelligence, the circularity of the working definition is no longer problematic. As established by the European Union (EU) in the document “Mapping Smart Cities in the EU” (2014), a smart city should be the one that contemplates mobility solutions, energy efficiency, environmental aspects, government, economy, culture, leisure, sports, and technological solutions that cover the ICT needs of the citizen to develop their smart city plan. On this view, the context in which a task is administered could strongly affect the outcomes on that task. [19] (See also: Dog intelligence.) Alan S. Kaufman, Elizabeth O. Lichtenberger, in Comprehensive Clinical Psychology, 1998. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Despite the controversy, there is great interest and need for measurement of intelligence, especially in the educational context, in order to help children and adolescents. It is agreed that the results of studies conducted by McDermott et al. Another extremist group opposed to IQ testing is Witt and Gresham (1985) who state, “The WISC-R lacks treatment validity in that its use does not enhance remedial interventions for children who show specific academic skill deficiencies” (p. 1717). The definition of intelligence is controversial. In both studies, emotional intelligence was negatively related to Neuroticism (or anxiety), and positively related to Extraversion and Conscientiousness (or self-control); the correlations were rather strong, with the highest well above .50. Coping and self-attributions are, in the late 1990s, more often identified as significant influences for memory and cognition. Finally, there is a group of professionals who have suggested that the Wechsler has limits that should be recognized, but these limits could be addressed by alternative methods rather than abandoning the practice of intelligence testing altogether. Visvizi and Lytras, 2018). Thus, it appears that when emotional intelligence is measured using self-reports (or observer reports), it largely represents a blend of several desirable personality traits. In addition, a city will be a smart city in the field of governance if ICTs are widely used in city government and also serve as a channel of communication and development of transparency policies between the administration and citizens. Another pair of researchers (Rechsly & Tilly, 1993) agree with the Witt and Gresham (1985) statements about the lack of treatment validity of the WISC-R, but only provide references that are not specific to the Wechsler scales. Although contextual approaches have a definite edge on cognitive models in specifying the importance of context as an influence on cognitive performance, they tend to be weak in the specification of cognitive processing. ", "Mainstream Science on Intelligence (editorial)", "New methods for the diagnosis of the intellectual level of subnormals", "TED Speaker: Alex Wissner-Gross: A new equation for intelligence", "Kaplan Andreas and Haelein Michael (2019) Siri, Siri, in my hand: Who's the fairest in the land? and Future research might examine the validity of emotional intelligence for predicting outcomes that are more directly connected to emotional skills, such as success in interacting with other people in a variety of individual and group settings. A synthesis of 70+ definitions from psychology, philosophy, and AI researchers: "Intelligence measures an agent's ability to achieve goals in a wide range of environments", This page was last edited on 29 October 2020, at 02:27. Stahl, Günter

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