Charlemagne's intention was to see all his sons brought up as natives of their given territories, wearing the national costume of the region and ruling by the local customs. Intimidated by the emperor's swift action, Bernard met his uncle at Chalon, under invitation, and surrendered. On the southwestern frontier, problems commenced early when c. 812, Louis the Pious crossed the western Pyrenees 'to settle matters' in Pamplona. Though his reign ended on a high note, with order largely restored to his empire, it was followed by three years of civil war. Louis's reforms, largely inspired by Benedict of Aniane, aimed at a revival of the inner spiritual and moral life of the clergy. Born in Aquitaine, Louis I was the third son of Charlemagne and his second wife, Hildegard. , While at his villa of Doué-la-Fontaine, Anjou, Louis received news of his father's death.  In 816, Pope Stephen IV, who had succeeded Leo III, visited Reims and again crowned Louis on Sunday 5 October. His other sons, however, came to his defense, and Louis was once again reinstated as emperor. In 836, however, the family made peace and Louis restored Pepin and Louis, deprived Lothair of all save Italy, and gave it to Charles in a new division, given at the diet of Crémieu. On his father's death in 814, he inherited the entire Carolingian Empire and all its possessions (with the sole exception of the kingdom of Italy; although within Louis's empire, in 813 Charlemagne had ordered that Bernard, Pepin's son be made and called king). Upon hearing of this, Louis immediately directed his army towards Italy, and headed for Chalon-sur-Saône. Captured by his sons at Compiègne, Louis was forced to surrender the empire to Lothair. On the far southern edge of his great realm, Louis had to control the Lombard princes of Benevento whom Charlemagne had never subjugated. Louis designated his eldest son, Lothair I, as his successor and as superior to the other two. With this settlement, Louis attempted to combine his sense for the Empire's unity, supported by the clergy, while at the same time providing positions for all of his sons.  Afterwards, he threw his sword belt at the base of the altar and received judgement through the imposition of the hands of the bishops. The disaffected Pepin was summoned to his father's court, where he was so poorly received he left against his father's orders. Lothair was given the choice of which partition he would inherit and he chose the eastern, including Italy, leaving the western for Charles. He marched as far as Compiègne, an ancient royal town, before being surrounded by Pepin's forces and captured. The Life and Accomplishments of Louis the Pious This paper discusses Louis the Pious, Charlemagne's only biological son. In the event of Lothair dying without sons, one of Louis the Pious' younger sons would be chosen to replace him by "the people". Also useful are the brief but excellent evaluations in Heinrich Fichtenau, The Carolingian Empire (1949; trans. However, Louis marched the entire army of his kingdom, including Gascons with their duke Sancho I of Gascony, Provençals under Leibulf, and Goths under Bera, over the Pyrenees and besieged it for two years, wintering there from 800 to 801, when it capitulated. He lived between the 8 th and 9 th centuries AD and reigned for 26 years. In the spring of 839, Louis the German invaded Swabia, Pepin II and his Gascon subjects fought all the way to the Loire, and the Danes returned to ravage the Frisian coast (sacking Dorestad for a second time). In 837, Louis crowned Charles king over all of Alemannia and Burgundy and gave him a portion of his brother Louis' land. In 821, an alliance was made with Borna, duke of the Dalmatia, and Liudewit was brought to heel. Seguin was replaced by Lupus III, who was dispossessed in 818 by the emperor. People born on April 16 fall under the Zodiac sign of Aries, the Ram. The nobles, however, elected Pepin's son Pepin II. At the court itself, Louis's chancellor, the chief official of the palace, was a priest. Louis marched south. Einhard gives the name of his birthplace as, Paired gold medallions of father and son had been struck on the occasion of the synod of Paris (825) that asserted Frankish claims as emperor, recently denigrated by the Byzantines; see Karl F. Morrison, "The Gold Medallions of Louis the Pious and Lothaire I and the Synod of Paris (825)". Ebbo himself received the monastery of St Vaast whilst Pepin was allowed to keep the lands reclaimed from his father. Known as the Synod of Thionville, Louis himself was reinvested with his ancestral garb and the crown, symbols of Carolingian rulership. However, the princes were not given independence from central authority as Charlemagne wished to implant in them the concepts of empire and unity by sending them on remote military expeditions. Louis the Pious was a famous Holy Roman Emperor, who was born on April 16, 778. While Louis was at Worms gathering a new force, Lothair marched north. In 818, as Louis was returning from a campaign to Brittany, he was greeted by news of the death of his wife, Ermengarde. At a council at Soissons, made up primarily of bishops who supported Lothair and the principle of imperial unity, Louis  He was the third son of Charlemagne by his wife Hildegard.  In the following year he was sent to Aquitaine accompanied by regents and a court. This act of contrition, partly in emulation of Theodosius I, had the effect of greatly reducing his prestige as a Frankish ruler, for he also recited a list of minor offences about which no secular ruler of the time would have taken any notice. The standard treatment of the reign of Louis the Pious is in The Cambridge Medieval History (8 vols., 1911-1936). In 820 an assembly at Quierzy-sur-Oise decided to send an expedition against the Cordoban caliphate (827). In 822, as a deeply religious man, Louis performed penance for causing Bernard's death, at his palace of Attigny near Vouziers in the Ardennes, before Pope Paschal I, and a council of clerics and nobles of the realm that had been convened for the reconciliation of Louis with his three younger half-brothers, Hugo whom he soon made abbot of St-Quentin, Drogo whom he soon made Bishop of Metz, and Theodoric. Louis I (byname the Pious, the Fair, or the Debonair) was a King of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor belonging to the Carolingian Dynasty. During his reign in Aquitaine, Louis was charged with the defence of the empire's southwestern frontier. Although it took King Louis XIV some time to gain the academic and military skills needed to rule, confidence was another story. Mayke De Jong, "Power and Humility in Carolingian society: the Public Penance of Louis the Pious", Agobard, "Personal Attestation to the Penance of Louis the Pious" in Lievan Van Acker (ed. Bernard Walter Scholz, with Barbara Rogers, Carolingian Chronicles: "Royal Frankish Annals" and Nithard's "Histories" (1970), is a specialized translation of two medieval works of official history which together narrate the rise and fall of the Carolingian Empire. This five page paper has two sources listed in the bibliography. The problems caused by the division of 817 were further complicated by Louis's second marriage, to Judith, a noblewoman of Bavaria, and by the birth of a fourth son, Charles (later known as Charles the Bald). The birth of this son damaged the Partition of Aachen, as Louis's attempts to provide for his fourth son met with stiff resistance from his older sons, and the last two decades of his reign were marked by civil war. In 816, however, the Sorbs rebelled and were quickly followed by Slavomir, chief of the Obotrites, who was captured and abandoned by his own people, being replaced by Ceadrag in 818.
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