The larger eruptions of Manam produce pyroclastic flows and sometimes lava flows. Minor explosive activity, continued thermal activity, and SO, MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, Eruptions, Earthquakes & Emissions Application. Learn more about ReliefWeb, leading online source for reliable and timely humanitarian information on global crises and disasters since 1996. There were no further reports of explosive activity until the Darwin VAAC reported an ash emission in visible satellite imagery on 20 March 2020 that rose to 3.1 km altitude and drifted E for a few hours before dissipating. Volcano Profile |  Geologic Background. Five small satellitic centers are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern, and western sides. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery recorded thermal anomalies at least once from one or both of the summit craters each month between October 2019 and March 2020 (figure 75). The Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume in visible satellite imagery moving NW at 3.1 km altitude on 2 October 2019. Both have repeatedly reached the coast and affected populated areas. The TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite captured evidence each month of SO2 emissions exceeding two Dobson Units (figure 74). The current eruption, ongoing since June 2014, produced multiple large explosive eruptions during January-September 2019, including two 15-km-high ash plumes in January, repeated SO2 plumes each month, and another 15.2 km-high ash plume in June that resulted in ashfall and evacuations of several thousand people (BGVN 44:10). A few modest explosions with ash emissions were reported in early October and early November 2019, and then not again until late March 2020. SO 2 emissions at Manam exceeded 2 Dobson Units multiple days each month between October 2019 and March 2020. Satellite image of Manam volcano (c) Google, A gas-steam plume and incandescence at Manam volcano visible from satellite (image: Sentinel 2), "Your Vanuatu Volcano tour was a fantastic mix of hard core volcanoes and cultural Vanuatu life... " -, Manam Volcano Volcanic Ash Advisory: VA EMISSION TO FL070 MOV WSW OBS 20/0100Z OBS VA DTG: 20/0143Z to 7000 ft (2100 m), Manam Volcano Volcanic Ash Advisory: VA TO FL140 OBS AT 15/2210Z MOV W OBS VA DTG: 15/2339Z to 14000 ft (4300 m), Manam Volcano Volcanic Ash Advisory: MINOR DISCRETE VA OBS TO FL100 MOV SW AT 06/1340Z to 10000 ft (3000 m), Manam Volcano Volcanic Ash Advisory: CONTINUOUS VA PLUME TO FL140 MOVE NW. The current eruption, ongoing since June 2014, produced multiple large explosive eruptions during January-September 2019, including two 15-km-high ash plumes in January, repeated SO2 plumes each month, and another 15.2 km-high ash plume in June that resulted in ashfall and evacuations of several thousand people (BGVN 44:10). Incandescent ejecta was visible at the start of the explosion and continued with intermittent strong pulses after dark, reaching peak intensity around 1900. The Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume in visible satellite imagery moving NW at 3.1 km altitude on 2 October 2019. The volcano predicting drones were also deployed at the Manam volcano located on an island just 10 kilometres wide that is at the northeast coast of PNG.

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