A few people consider any non-patriarchal system to be matriarchal, thus including genderally equalitarian systems (Peggy Reeves Sanday favors redefining and reintroducing the word matriarchy, especially in reference to contemporary matrilineal societies such as the Minangkabau), but most academics exclude them from matriarchies strictly defined. There are various forms of matriarchy, or even a utopia that resembles the Greek myth of the Amazons.... [V]ery few modern utopias have been developed in which women are absolute autocrats.".  They were aware of the fact that the sexual structure of government had no relation to domestic rule and to roles of both sexes. , A matriarchy is also sometimes called a gynarchy, a gynocracy, a gynecocracy, or a gynocentric society, although these terms do not definitionally emphasize motherhood. American Sociological Review 17: 202-12. Accordingly, these concepts do not represent matriarchy as 'power of women over men'.  Engels speculated that the domestication of animals increased wealth claimed by men. " According to LeBow (based on Schlegel's work), in the Hopi, "gender roles ... are egalitarian .... [and] [n]either sex is inferior. Sociology and You, Chapter 11. While not a creation of the Hebrew Bible, Shekinah appears in a slightly later Aramaic translation of the Bible in the first or second century C.E., according to Patai. Similarly, patriarchy denotes political control by men to the exclusion of women.….  Many researchers studied the phenomenon of matriarchy afterward, but the basis was laid by the classics of sociology. ", According to Adler, "a number of feminists note that few definitions of the word [matriarchy], despite its literal meaning, include any concept of power, and they suggest that centuries of oppression have made it impossible for women to conceive of themselves with such power.".  The hypothesis survived into the 20th century and was notably advanced in the context of feminism and especially second-wave feminism, but the hypothesis is mostly discredited today, most experts saying that it was never true. Our women decided any and all issues involving territory, including where a community was to be built and how land was to be used....In our political system, we mandated full equality. Declarations of war had to be approved by the women, while treaties of peace were subject to their deliberations.  Schlegel said the Hopi "were and still are matrilinial" and "the household ... was matrilocal". Several generations of ethnologists were inspired by his pseudo-evolutionary theory of archaic matriarchy. The theory of matriarchical civilization, first articulated by Bachhofen in 1861 (1992, 2003), was once very popular and indirectly influenced Morgan, Engels, and others (Bamberger 1974). (1952) A Formal Theory of Interaction in Social Groups. It is easier to conceptualize patriarchy if it replaced matriarchy, but it seems likely that that never took place (Sanday 1981).  However, some advocacy includes diversity, in the views of Dworkin and Farley. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. ”Gerontocracy and patriarchalism,” he states, ”are frequently found side by side.” Obedience is owed to the individual male leader. But a number of semi popular books (e.g., Gimbutas 1991) argue that matriarchy not only preceded patriarchy but was superior to it. Athenians discussed in the context of play by Aristophanes, "Holy Scripture inculcates for women a sphere higher than and apart from that of public life; because as women they find a full measure of duties, cares and responsibilities and are unwilling to bear additional burdens unsuited to their physical organization. Matriarchy may also refer to non-human animal species in which females hold higher status and hierarchical positions, such as among lions, spotted hyenas, and bonobos.  According to Seekins, "in [the year] 40, Trung Trac was proclaimed queen, and a capital was built for her" and modern Vietnam considers the Trung sisters to be heroines. Morgan, L. H. (1877) Ancient Society. In his study, he states women behave a certain way not because they are biologically inclined to, but rather because they are judged by "how well they conform to the stereotypical local image of femininity". ", Matrilineality, in which descent is traced through the female line, is sometimes conflated with historical matriarchy.  The term matriology was used in theology and history of religion as a designation for the study of particular motherly aspects of various female deities. 29 terms. Some question whether a queen ruling without a king is sufficient to constitute female government, given the amount of participation of other men in most such governments. " According to Cynthia Eller, "'matriarchy' can be thought of ... as a shorthand description for any society in which women's power is equal or superior to men's and in which the culture centers around values and life events described as 'feminine.
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