He moved quickly to reform the system and adopted a military model for his medical staff; putting his physicians in uniforms, and instituting examinations for applicants. https://www.thefreedictionary.com/United+States+Public+Health+Service. The scope of activities of the Marine Hospital Service also began to expand well beyond the care of merchant seamen in the closing decades of the nineteenth century, beginning with the control of infectious disease. Although originally projected to last 6 months, the study actually went on for 40 years.  The Marine Hospital Service was assigned the responsibility for the medical inspection of arriving immigrants at sites such as Ellis Island in New York Harbor. A reorganization in 1870 converted the loose network of locally controlled marine hospitals into a centrally controlled Marine Hospital Service, with its headquarters in Washington, D.C. As the boundaries of the United States expanded, and harbors were built on other coasts, so too were marine hospitals. 248c, 248d.  At that time the National Institute of Health [sic] was already established as a division of the PHS. The commissioned officer corps was established by legislation in 1889, and signed by 22nd/24th President Grover Cleveland. The Office of the Surgeon General was abolished and the position of Surgeon General became that of a principal deputy to the Assistant Secretary for Health with responsibility for advising and assisting on professional medical matters. The United States Public Health Service, successor to the U.S. Marine Hospital Service (1798-1902) and the U.S. Public Health and Marine Hospital Service (1902-1912) administered the former marine hospitals in addition to many other hospitals and clinics, the last of which were closed in 1981. , In 1953 the Federal Security Agency was abolished and most of its functions, including the PHS, were transferred to the newly formed Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Woodworth created a cadre of mobile, career service physicians, who could be assigned as needed to the various Marine Hospitals. AHRQ supports research designed to improve the outcomes and quality of health-care, reduce its costs, address patient safety and medical errors, and broaden access to effective services. The commissioned officer corps was established by legislation in 1889, and signed by 22nd/24th President Grover Cleveland. Research, Evaluation & Data. They were initially located along the East Coast, at the harbors of the major port cities. In 1955 the Indian Health Service was established upon transfer of these functions from the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The health status of American Indians and Alaska Natives is the concern of the Indian Health Service, which is the principal federal healthcare advocate for these groups. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of Health and Human Services.
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